1. Introduction

One of the 21st century problems is shortage of water. Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region. It currently affects around 2.8 billion people around the world. Water shortage has been a problem all over the world for a long time already. For example, Libya. According to Wheida & Verhoeven , Libya’s water resources is being deeply affected because of it’s political problem. It has a lack of water due to its unreliable water resources. They don’t have a proper way to attain water. In order to save themselves, Libya has aquifers deep below their desert sand. Another example is the popular country Australia.  According to "Water shortage in, 2007"  and a few other sources, their lack of water problem has been going on for several years already. They have a dry continent resulting in numerous droughts. However, recently, there have been floods. Australians can use filtration methods and use the abundant water to their advantage. There are numerous campaigns and citizens are well educated on their country’s situation. People continuously raise awareness on water. There are signs stating water restrictions reminding the citizens of the water shortage. There have been talks about implementing ‘water inspectors’ who issue penalties when they notice wastage of water. In reference to "Thirsty giant -,", another example of shortage of water is India. Due to its extremely large population, providing water to everyone is not always easy. There are large shortages of water and children on the streets are forced to drink unhygienic water. The same goes for Africa where the pregnancy rate is extremely high and the population rate is extremely large (Lewis, 2010). After so many examples, we cannot let the problem of water shortage slip. We have to do something on this issue.
Singapore takes a serious view about water issues. In the year 1997, Malaysia threatened that it would cut the water supply to Singapore in retribution for criticisms by Singapore of policies in Malaysia (Lee, 2003) (Segal, 2004). Singapore was calm at that time as they were not afraid of Malaysia cutting off their supply as Malaysia needed to sell water and Singapore was the only one. Malaysia ended up not cutting Singapore’s water supply. In a situation when our water supply is actually cut, Singapore is prepared to start a war with any country that dares to cut off Singapore’s water supply. Well, prevention is better than cure.


We will be researching on how Singapore sustains its water supply by having 4 main taps for water, Reclaimed Water, NEWater, Imported Water and Catchment Water. We will then methodically delegate ranks to each tap in terms of importance, or rather sustainability. By focusing on the risk Singapore is taking just to prevent scarcity of water in singapore, we can find ways to prevent running a shortage of water in Singapore too. Analysing the government’s current way of handling Singapore’s water situation will help us in our research to form better improvisations. This not only helps us but also helps countries that is need of water. How we protect our water supply is also important
To meet water demands in Singapore, 4 national taps have developed over time: Imported water from Malaysia, NEWater, Desalinated water, Catchment water. We are investigating the cost of these 4 national taps in Singapore. The cost here refers to the amount of energy that will be needed, manpower, equipment, social acceptance, land area/location, weather, political and money.
We will be researching on how all these factors affect each national tap. According to our sources, for imported water, the factors that affect them the greatest would be money, political issues, weather, location, equipment needed to transport the water and social acceptance. Desalinated water requires a lot of money, energy, manpower, rain and equipment. The location is also important to avoid extra costs and social acceptance matters heavily too. Catchment water is very, very heavily dependent on weather. It requires money - lesser than desalinated water-, energy, manpower, a lot of land area and equipment. NEWater requires land area, is specifically located, equipment. However, as for social acceptance, many people are sitting on the fence as recycled sewage water does not appeal to them in terms of health.






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